- A hill or mountain
standing isolated above
a predominately flat plain.
- 1901, Philip Emerson, Notes on the New England Upland about the
White Mountains, in Appalachia, vol. IX, p57
- Eastward from the White Mountains, the open sea of the upland country comes right to the monadnock shore, with hardly an outlying island; southward the upland is covered for miles by an archipelago of monadnock groups and peaks.
- 1901, Philip Emerson, Notes on the New England Upland about the White Mountains, in Appalachia, vol. IX, p57
- This article is about the generic geologic term. For all other
uses, see Monadnock
- Kopje and Koppie redirect here. Or you may be wanting the word "copy".
Monadnock is an originally Native American term for an isolated hill or a lone mountain that has risen above the surrounding area, typically by surviving erosion. The name was taken from Mount Monadnock in southwestern New Hampshire (USA), in Jaffrey. The name is thought to derive from the Abenaki language, from either menonadenak ("smooth mountain") or menadena ("isolated mountain").
The word inselberg is German for "island mountain"; the name was originally coined to describe the abundant such features found in southern Africa. The term monadnock is more usually used in the US.
FormationVolcanic or other processes may give rise to a body of rock resistant to erosion, inside a body of softer rock such as limestone which is more susceptible to erosion. When the less resistant rock is eroded away to form a plain, the more resistant rock is left behind as an isolated mountain. If the monadnock is dome-shaped and formed from granite-gneiss, it can also be called a bornhardt.
Examples of monadnocksNotable monadnocks include:
- Mount Monadnock in New Hampshire; the mountain where the term originated
- Baraboo Range in Wisconsin
- Crowder's Mountain, near Kings Mountain, North Carolina
- Enchanted Rock in Texas
- Katahdin in Maine
- Little Mountain in Newberry County, South Carolina
- Monadnock Mountain in northern Vermont
- Mount Ascutney in southern Vermont
- Panola Mountain in Georgia
- Paris Mountain in Greenville, South Carolina
- Pilot Mountain in North Carolina
- Rib Mountain in Wisconsin
- Stone Mountain in Georgia
- Sugarloaf Mountain in Maryland
- Willis Mountain in Virginia
- Uluru (Ayers Rock) and Kata Tjuta
- Sugarloaf Mountain in Rio de Janeiro
- Gaff Topsails in Newfoundland
- Mount Sylvester in Newfoundland
- Mulanje Massif in Malawi
- Suilven in Scotland
- Roger Brunet (dir.), Les mots de la géographie, Paris, Reclus-La Documentation française, 1993, ISBN 2110030364, article «monadnock», page 335.
- USS Monadnock (1883), a United States Navy ironclad warship
- Monadnock Building, Chicago, one of the tallest masonry buildings in the world
- Ralph Waldo Emerson, who wrote a long poem, "Monadnoc", and for whom the New Hampshire mountain was a recurring symbol
- "Monadnock valley", a fictitious resort at "The Fountainhead", a novel by Ayn Rand.
monadnock in German: Inselberg
monadnock in Spanish: Cerro testigo
monadnock in French: Inselberg
monadnock in Polish: Ostaniec
monadnock in Portuguese: Inselberg
monadnock in Slovenian: Osamelec